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Bonnie Light

Principal Physicist

Affiliate Associate Professor, Atmospheric Sciences





Department Affiliation

Polar Science Center


Extreme Summer Melt: Assessing the Habitability and Physical Structure of Rotting First-year Arctic Sea Ice

Sea ice cover in the Arctic during summer is shrinking and thinning. The melt season is lengthening and the prevalence of "rotten" sea ice is increasing.

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30 Jul 2015

A multidisciplinary team of researchers is making a series of three monthly (May, June, and July) expeditions to Barrow, AK. They are measuring the summertime melt processes that transform the physical properties of sea ice, which in turn transform the biological and chemical properties of the ice habitat.

Investigating Arctic Ice Melt

"Investigating Arctic Ice Melt" is an interactive exhibit at the Pacific Science Center in Seattle, WA. Bonnie Light leads a tour through some of the installations and explains a few of the many pieces to the puzzle: What is causing the decreasing ice up north?

19 Mar 2014

Focus on Arctic Sea Ice: Current and Future States of a Diminished Sea Ice Cover

APL-UW polar scientists are featured in the March edition of the UW TV news magazine UW|360, where they discuss their research on the current and future states of a diminished sea ice cover in the Arctic.

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7 Mar 2012

The dramatic melting of Arctic sea ice over the past several summers has generated great interest and concern in the scientific community and among the public. Here, APL-UW polar scientists present their research on the current state of Arctic sea ice. A long-term, downward trend in sea ice volume is clear.

They also describe how the many observations they gather are used to improve computer simulations of global climate that, in turn, help us to asses the impacts of a future state of diminished sea ice cover in the Arctic.

This movie presentation was first seen on the March 2012 edition of UW|360, the monthly University of Washington Television news magazine.


2000-present and while at APL-UW

Light availability and phytoplankton growth beneath arctic sea ice: Integrating observations and modeling

Hill, V.J., B. Light, M. Steele, and R.C. Zimmerman, "Light availability and phytoplankton growth beneath arctic sea ice: Integrating observations and modeling," J. Geophys. Res., EOR, doi:10.1029/2017JC013617, 2018.

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30 Apr 2018

Observations of the seasonal light field in the upper Arctic Ocean are critical to understanding the impacts of changing Arctic ice conditions on phytoplankton growth in the water column. Here we discuss data from a new sensor system, deployed in seasonal ice cover north‐east of Utqiagvik, Alaska in March 2014. The system was designed to provide observations of light and phytoplankton biomass in the water column during the formation of surface melt ponds and the transition from ice to open water. Hourly observations of downwelling irradiance beneath the ice (at 2.9, 6.9, and 17.9 m depths) and phytoplankton biomass (at 2.9 m depth) were transmitted via Iridium satellite from 9 March to 10 November 2014. Evidence of an under‐ice phytoplankton bloom (Chl a ∼8 mg m-3) was seen in June and July. Increases in light intensity observed by the buoy likely resulted from the loss of snow cover and development of surface melt ponds. A bio‐optical model of phytoplankton production supported this probable trigger for the rapid onset of under‐ice phytoplankton growth. Once under‐ice light was no longer a limiting factor for photosynthesis, open water exposure almost marginally increased daily phytoplankton production compared to populations that remained under the adjacent ice. As strong effects of climate change continue to be documented in the Arctic, the insight derived from autonomous buoys will play an increasing role in understanding the dynamics of primary productivity where ice and cloud cover limit the utility of ocean color satellite observations.

The spectral albedo of sea ice and salt crusts on the tropical ocean of Snowball Earth: 1. Laboratory measurements

Light, B., R. Carns, and S.G. Warren, "The spectral albedo of sea ice and salt crusts on the tropical ocean of Snowball Earth: 1. Laboratory measurements," J. Geophys. Res., 121, 4966-4979, doi:10.1002/2016JC011803, 2016.

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16 Jun 2016

The ice-albedo feedback mechanism likely contributed to global glaciation during the Snowball Earth events of the Neoproterozoic era (1 Ga to 544 Ma). This feedback results from the albedo contrast between sea ice and open ocean. Little is known about the optical properties of some of the possible surface types that may have been present, including sea ice that is both snow-free and cold enough for salts to precipitate within brine inclusions. A proxy surface for such ice was grown in a freezer laboratory using the single salt NaCl and kept below the eutectic temperature (–21.2°C) of the NaCl – H2O binary system. The resulting ice cover was composed of ice and precipitated hydrohalite crystals (NaCl ⋅ 2H2O). As the cold ice sublimated, a thin lag-deposit of salt formed on the surface. To hasten its growth in the laboratory, the deposit was augmented by addition of a salt-enriched surface crust. Measurements of the spectral albedo of this surface were carried out over 90 days as the hydrohalite crust thickened due to sublimation of ice, and subsequently over several hours as the crust warmed and dissolved, finally resulting in a surface with puddled liquid brine. The all-wave solar albedo of the subeutectic crust is 0.93 (in contrast to 0.83 for fresh snow and 0.67 for melting bare sea ice). Incorporation of these processes into a climate model of Snowball Earth will result in a positive salt-albedo feedback operating between –21°C and –36°C.

The spectral albedo of sea ice and salt crusts on the tropical ocean of Snowball Earth: 2. Optical modeling

Carns, R.C., B. Light, and S.G. Warren, "The spectral albedo of sea ice and salt crusts on the tropical ocean of Snowball Earth: 2. Optical modeling," J. Geophys. Res., 121, 5217-5230, doi:10.1002/2016JC011804, 2016.

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16 Jun 2016

During the Snowball Earth events of the Neoproterozoic, tropical regions of the ocean could have developed a precipitated salt lag deposit left behind by sublimating sea ice. The major salt would have been hydrohalite, NaCl⋅2H2O. The crystals in such a deposit can be small and highly scattering, resulting in an allwave albedo similar to that of snow. The snow-free sea ice from which such a crust could develop has a lower albedo, around 0.5, so the development of a crust would substantially increase the albedo of tropical regions on Snowball Earth. Hydrohalite crystals are much less absorptive than ice in the near-infrared part of the solar spectrum, so their presence at the surface would increase the overall albedo as well as altering its spectral distribution.

In this paper, we use laboratory measurements of the spectral albedo of a hydrohalite lag deposit, in combination with a radiative transfer model, to infer the inherent optical properties of hydrohalite as functions of wavelength. Using this result, we model mixtures of hydrohalite and ice representing both artificially created surfaces in the laboratory and surfaces relevant to Snowball Earth. The model is tested against sequences of laboratory measurements taken during the formation and the dissolution of a lag deposit of hydrohalite. We present a parameterization for the broadband albedo of cold, sublimating sea ice as it forms and evolves a hydrohalite crust, for use in climate models of Snowball Earth.

More Publications

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center