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Wayne Kreider

Senior Engineer






Bachelor of Science Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 1993

Master of Science Engineering Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 1995

Doctor of Philosophy Bioengineering, University of Washington, 2008


2000-present and while at APL-UW

The impact of dust and confinement on fragmentation of kidney stones by shockwave lithotripsy in tissue phantoms

Randad, A., J. Ahn, W. Kreider, M.R. Bailey, J.D. Harper, M.D. Sorensen, and A.D. Maxwell, "The impact of dust and confinement on fragmentation of kidney stones by shockwave lithotripsy in tissue phantoms," J. Endourol., EOR, doi:10.1089/end.2018.0516, 2019.

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1 Feb 2019

Objective: The goal was to test whether stone composition and kidney phantom configuration affected comminution in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) laboratory tests. Confinement may enhance the accumulation of dust and associated cavitation bubbles in the fluid surrounding the stone. It is known that high shockwave delivery rates in SWL are less effective because bubbles generated by one shockwave do not have sufficient time to dissolve, thereby shielding the next shockwave.

Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted with a lithotripter coupled to a water bath. The rate of comminution was measured by weighing fragments over 2 mm at 5-minute time points. First, plaster and crystal stones were broken in four phantoms: a nylon wire mesh, an open polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cup, a closed PVC cup, and an anatomical kidney model — the phantoms have decreasing fluid volumes around the stone. Second, the fluid volume in the kidney model was flushed with water at different rates (0, 7, and 86 mL/min) to remove dust.

Results: The efficiency of breakage of stones decreases for the dust emitting plaster stones (percentage of breakage in 5 minutes decreased from 92% ± 2% [n = 3] in wire mesh to 19% ± 3% [n = 3] in model calix) with increasing confinement, but not for the calcite crystal stones that produced little dust (percentage of breakage changed from 87% ± 3% [n = 3] in wire mesh to 81% ± 3% [n = 3] in kidney model). Flushing the kidney phantom at the fastest rate improved comminution of smaller plaster stones by 27%.

Conclusions: Phantoms restricting dispersion of dust were found to affect stone breakage in SWL and in vitro experiments should replicate kidney environments. The dust around the stone and potential cavitation may shield the stone from shockwaves and reduce efficacy of SWL. Understanding of stone composition and degree of hydronephrosis could be used to adapt patient-specific protocols.

Impact of stone type on caviation in burst wave lithotripsy

Hunter, C., A.D. Maxwell, B. Cunitz, B. Dunmire, M.D. Sorensen, J.C. Williams Jr., A. Randad, M. Bailey, and W. Kreider, "Impact of stone type on caviation in burst wave lithotripsy," Proc. Mtgs. Acoust., 35, 020005, doi:10.1121/2.0000950, 2018.

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26 Dec 2018

Proceedings, 176th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 5-9 November 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Non-invasive kidney stone treatments such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) rely on the delivery of pressure waves through tissue to the stone. In both SWL and BWL, the potential to hinder comminution by exciting cavitation proximal to the stone has been reported. To elucidate how different stones alter prefocal cavitation in BWL, different natural and synthetic stones were treated in vitro using a therapy transducer operating at 350 kHz (peak negative pressure 7 MPa, pulse length 20 cycles, pulse repetition frequency 10 Hz). Stones were held in a confined volume of water designed to mimic the geometry of a kidney calyx, with the water filtered and degassed to maintain conditions for which the cavitation threshold (in the absence of a stone) matches that from in vivo observations. Stone targeting and cavitation monitoring were performed via ultrasound imaging using a diagnostic probe aligned coaxially with the therapy transducer. Quantitative differences in the extent and location of cavitation activity were observed for different stone types — e.g., stones (natural and synthetic) that are known to be porous produced larger prefocal cavitation clouds. Ongoing work will focus on correlation of such cavitation metrics with stone fragmentation.

Modeling and numerical simulation of the bubble cloud dynamics in an ultrasound field for burst wave lithotripsy

Maeda, K., T. Colonius, A. Maxwell, W. Kreider, and M. Bailey, "Modeling and numerical simulation of the bubble cloud dynamics in an ultrasound field for burst wave lithotripsy," Proc. Mtgs. Acoust., 35, 020006, doi:10.1121/2.0000946, 2018.

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26 Dec 2018

176th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 5-9 November 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Modeling and numerical simulation of bubble clouds induced by intense ultrasound waves are conducted to quantify the effect of cloud cavitation on burst wave lithotripsy, a proposed non-invasive alternative to shock wave lithotripsy that uses pulses of ultrasound with an amplitude of O(1) MPa and a frequency of O(100) kHz. A unidirectional acoustic source model and an Eulerian-Lagrangian method are developed for simulation of ultrasound generation from a multi-element array transducer and cavitation bubbles, respectively. Parametric simulations of the spherical bubble cloud dynamics reveal a new scaling parameter that dictates both the structure of the bubble cloud and the amplitude of the far-field, bubble-scattered acoustics. The simulation further shows that a thin layer of bubble clouds nucleated near a kidney stone model can shield up to 90% of the incoming wave energy, indicating a potential loss of efficacy during the treatment due to cavitation. Strong correlations are identified between the far-field, bubble-scattered acoustics and the magnitude of the shielding, which could be used for ultrasound monitoring of cavitation during treatments. The simulations are validated by companion experiments in vitro.

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Audio Feedback for Improving the Accuracy of BWL Targeting

Record of Invention Number: 48254

Mike Bailey, Bryan Cunitz, Barbrina Dunmire, Christopher Hunter, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang


25 Jan 2018

Methods and Systems for Non-invasive Treatment of Tissue Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy

Patent Number: 9,700,742

Michael Canney, Mike Bailey, Larry Crum, Joo Ha Hwang, Tatiana Khokhlova, Vera Khokhlova, Wayne Kreider, Oleg Sapozhnikov

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11 Jul 2017

Methods and systems for non-invasive treatment of tissue using high intensity focused ultrasound ("HIFU") therapy. A method of non-invasively treating tissue in accordance with an embodiment of the present technology, for example, can include positioning a focal plane of an ultrasound source at a target site in tissue. The ultrasound source can be configured to emit HIFU waves. The method can further include pulsing ultrasound energy from the ultrasound source toward the target site, and generating shock waves in the tissue to induce boiling of the tissue at the target site within milliseconds. The boiling of the tissue at least substantially emulsifies the tissue.

Portable Acoustic Holography Systems for Therapeutic Ultrasound Sources and Associated Devices and Methods

Patent Number: 9,588,491

Oleg Sapozhnikov, Mike Bailey, Vera Khokhlova, Wayne Kreider

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7 Mar 2017

The present technology relates generally to portable acoustic holography systems for therapeutic ultrasound sources, and associated devices and methods. In some embodiments, a method of characterizing an ultrasound source by acoustic holography includes the use of a transducer geometry characteristic, a transducer operation characteristic, and a holography system measurement characteristic. A control computer can be instructed to determine holography measurement parameters. Based on the holography measurement parameters, the method can include scanning a target surface to obtain a hologram. Waveform measurements at a plurality of points on the target surface can be captured. Finally, the method can include processing the measurements to reconstruct at least one characteristic of the ultrasound source.

More Inventions

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center