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Christopher Hunter

Ultrasound Engineer

Email

chunter@apl.washington.edu

Phone

206-221-6579

Education

Bachelor of Science Applied and Computational Mathematical Sciences, University of Washington, 2015

Publications

2000-present and while at APL-UW

Impact of stone type on caviation in burst wave lithotripsy

Hunter, C., A.D. Maxwell, B. Cunitz, B. Dunmire, M.D. Sorensen, J.C. Williams Jr., A. Randad, M. Bailey, and W. Kreider, "Impact of stone type on caviation in burst wave lithotripsy," Proc. Mtgs. Acoust., 35, 020005, doi:10.1121/2.0000950, 2018.

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26 Dec 2018

Proceedings, 176th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 5-9 November 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Non-invasive kidney stone treatments such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) rely on the delivery of pressure waves through tissue to the stone. In both SWL and BWL, the potential to hinder comminution by exciting cavitation proximal to the stone has been reported. To elucidate how different stones alter prefocal cavitation in BWL, different natural and synthetic stones were treated in vitro using a therapy transducer operating at 350 kHz (peak negative pressure 7 MPa, pulse length 20 cycles, pulse repetition frequency 10 Hz). Stones were held in a confined volume of water designed to mimic the geometry of a kidney calyx, with the water filtered and degassed to maintain conditions for which the cavitation threshold (in the absence of a stone) matches that from in vivo observations. Stone targeting and cavitation monitoring were performed via ultrasound imaging using a diagnostic probe aligned coaxially with the therapy transducer. Quantitative differences in the extent and location of cavitation activity were observed for different stone types — e.g., stones (natural and synthetic) that are known to be porous produced larger prefocal cavitation clouds. Ongoing work will focus on correlation of such cavitation metrics with stone fragmentation.

An in vivo demonstration of efficacy and acute safety of burst wave lithotripsy using a porcine model

Wang, Y.-N., W. Kreider, C. Hunter, B.W. Cunitz, J. Thiel, F. Starr, J.C. Dai, Y. Nazari, D. Lee, J.C. Williams, M.R. Bailey, and A.D. Maxwell, "An in vivo demonstration of efficacy and acute safety of burst wave lithotripsy using a porcine model," Proc. Mtgs. Acoust., 35, 02009, doi:10.1121/2.0000975, 2018.

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5 Nov 2018

Proceedings, 176th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 5-9 November 2018, Victoria, BC, Canada.

Burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) is a new non-invasive method for stone comminution using bursts of sub-megahertz ultrasound. A porcine model of urolithiasis and techniques to implement BWL treatment has been developed to evaluate its effectiveness and acute safety. Six human calcium oxalate monohydrate stones (6–7 mm) were hydrated, weighed, and surgically implanted into the kidneys of three pigs. Transcutaneous stone treatments were performed with a BWL transducer coupled to the skin via an external water bath. Stone targeting and treatment monitoring were performed with a co-aligned ultrasound imaging probe. Treatment exposures were applied in three 10-minute intervals for each stone. If sustained cavitation in the parenchyma was observed by ultrasound imaging feedback, treatment was paused and the pressure amplitude was decreased for the remaining time. Peak negative focal pressures between 6.5 and 7 MPa were applied for all treatments. After treatment, stone fragments were removed from the kidneys. At least 50% of each stone was reduced to <2 mm fragments. 100% of four stones were reduced to <4 mm fragments. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal injury to the functional renal volume. This study demonstrated that BWL could be used to effectively fragment kidney stones with minimal injury.

Dependence of inertial cavitation induced by high intensity focused ultrasound on transducer F-number and nonlinear waveform distortion

Khokhlova, T., P. Rosnitskiy, C. Hunter, A. Maxwell, W. Kreider, G. Ter Haar, M. Costa, O. Sapozhnikov, and V. Khokhlova, "Dependence of inertial cavitation induced by high intensity focused ultrasound on transducer F-number and nonlinear waveform distortion," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 144, 1160, doi:10.1121/1.5052260, 2018.

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1 Sep 2018

Pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound was shown to enhance chemotherapeutic drug uptake in tumor tissue through inertial cavitation, which is commonly assumed to require peak rarefactional pressures to exceed a certain threshold. However, recent studies have indicated that inertial cavitation activity also correlates with the presence of shocks at the focus. The shock front amplitude and corresponding peak negative pressure (p–) in the focal waveform are primarily determined by the transducer F-number: less focused transducers produce shocks at lower p–. Here, the dependence of inertial cavitation activity on the transducer F-number was investigated in agarose gel by monitoring broadband noise emissions with a coaxial passive cavitation detector (PCD) during pulsed exposures (pulse duration 1 ms, pulse repetition frequency 1 Hz) with p– varying within 1–15 MPa. Three 1.5 MHz transducers with the same aperture, but different focal distances (F-numbers 0.77, 1.02, 1.52) were used. PCD signals were processed to extract cavitation probability, persistence, and mean noise level. At the same p–, all metrics indicated enhanced cavitation activity at higher F-numbers; specifically, cavitation probability reached 100% when shocks formed at the focus. These results provide further evidence supporting the excitation of inertial cavitation at reduced p– by waveforms with nonlinear distortion and shocks.

More Publications

Inventions

Audio Feedback for Improving the Accuracy of BWL Targeting

Record of Invention Number: 48254

Mike Bailey, Bryan Cunitz, Barbrina Dunmire, Christopher Hunter, Wayne Kreider, Adam Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang

Disclosure

25 Jan 2018

Acoustics Air-Sea Interaction & Remote Sensing Center for Environmental & Information Systems Center for Industrial & Medical Ultrasound Electronic & Photonic Systems Ocean Engineering Ocean Physics Polar Science Center
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